The Targets IMage Energy Regional (TIMER) Model was developed and used in close connection with the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) 2.2. The system-dynamics TIMER model simulates the global energy system at an intermediate level of aggregation.

The main objectives of TIMER are to analyse the long-term dynamics of energy conservation and the transition to non-fossil fuels within an integrated modelling framework, and explore long-term trends for energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Important components of the various submodels are: price-driven fuel and technology substitution processes, cost decrease as a consequence of accumulated production ('learning-by-doing'), resource depletion as a function of cumulated use (long-term supply cost curves) and price-driven fuel trade.

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