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Link to the website with documentation and download instructions for the PNNL Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a community model or long-term, global energy, agriculture, land use, and emissions. BioEnergy production, transformation, and use is an integral part of GCAM modeling and scenarios.

http://jgcri.github.io/gcam-doc/

Author(s):
Marshall Wise
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Understanding the complex interactions among food security, bioenergy sustainability, and resource management
requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations’ 2030 Sustainable
Development Goals place a high priority on food and energy security; bioenergy plays an important role in
achieving both goals. Effective food security programs begin by clearly defining the problem and asking, ‘What
can be done to assist people at high risk?’ Simplistic global analyses, headlines, and cartoons that blame biofuels

Author(s):
KEITH L. KLINE , SIWA MSANGI2 , VIRGINIA H. DALE3 , JEREMY WOODS4 , GLAUCIA M. SOUZA5 , PATRICIA OSSEWEIJER6 , JOY S. CLANCY7 , JORGE A. HILBERT8 , FRANCIS X. JOHNSON9 , PATRICK C. MCDONNELL10 , HARRIET K. MUGERA11
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanolbased
high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
HOF blends used in an engine designed for higher octane have the potential to increase vehicle
energy efficiency through improved knock suppression. When the high-octane blend is made
with 25%–40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient

Author(s):
Kristi Moriarty
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

This project looks at the potential of blending ethanol with natural gasoline to produce Flex-Fuels (ASTM D5798-13a) and high-octane, mid-level ethanol blends. Eight natural gasoline samples were collected from pipeline companies or ethanol producers around the United States.

Author(s):
Teresa L. Alleman
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The objective of this work was to measure knock resistance metrics for ethanol-hydrocarbon blends with a primary focus on development of methods to  measure the heat of vaporization (HOV). Blends of ethanol at 10 to 50 volume percent were prepared with three gasoline blendstocks and a natural gasoline.

Author(s):
Gina M. Chupka
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

High-octane fuels (HOFs) such as mid-level ethanol blends can be leveraged to design vehicles with increased engine efficiency, but producing these fuels at refineries may be subject to energy efficiency penalties.  It has been questioned whether, on a well-to-wheels (WTW) basis, the use of HOFs in the vehicles designed for HOF has net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits.

Author(s):
Jeongwoo Han
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel
and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. Bio20 is not to be confused with B20, which is a
diesel blend containing 20% biodiesel. The feedstock, processing, and chemistry of biodiesel are markedly different from bio-oil.
Plastic materials included those identified for use as seals, coatings, piping and fiberglass resins, but many are also used in vehicle

Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for a test fuel representing
gasoline blended with 10% ethanol. Prior investigations were performed on gasoline fuels containing 25, 50 and 85% ethanol, but the
knowledge gap existing from 0 to 25% ethanol precluded accurate compatibility assessment of low level blends, especially for the
current E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10% ethanol) used in most filling stations, and the recently accepted E15 fuel blend (gasoline
blended with up to15% ethanol).

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The compatibility of elastomer materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel
fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. (This fuel blend is not to be confused with B20,
which is a blend of diesel fuel with 20% biodiesel.) The elastomer types evaluated in this study included fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone,
acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, neoprene, and silicone. All of these elastomer types are

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The compatibility of elastomeric materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels
representing neat gasoline and gasoline blends containing 10 and 17 vol.% ethanol, and 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. The
actual test fuel chemistries were based on the aggressive formulations described in SAE J1681 for oxygenated gasoline.
Elastomer specimens of fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), polyurethane, neoprene, styrene

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing gasoline blended with 25 vol.% ethanol and gasoline blended with 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. Plastic materials included those used in flexible plastic piping and fiberglass resins. Other commonly used plastic materials were also evaluated. The plastic specimens were exposed to Fuel C, CE25a, CiBu16a, and CiBu24a for 16 weeks at 60oC.

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in
mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30).
A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The
engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas

Author(s):
Derek Splitter
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 is an omnibus energy policy law designed to move the United States toward greater energy security and independence. A key provision of EISA is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons per year (BGPY) of renewable fuel in vehicles by 2022.* Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel, and increasing the allowable ethanol content from 10% to 15% is expected to push renewable fuel consumption to as much as 21 BGPY.

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form
and in midlevel alcohol−gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol−gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol−gasoline (E30).
A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air,
and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions

Author(s):
Derek Splitter
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form
and in midlevel alcohol−gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol−gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol−gasoline (E30).
A single-cylinder research engine is used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air,
and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions

Author(s):
Derek Splitter
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 is an omnibus energy policy law designed to
move the United States toward greater energy security and independence. A key provision of EISA is the
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) which requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons per year (BGPY) of
renewable fuel in vehicles by 2022.1 Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel, and increasing the
allowable ethanol content from 10% to 15% is expected to push renewable fuel consumption to 21BGPY.

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

This article summarises the compatibility of six elastomers – used in fuel
storage and delivery systems – with test fuels representing gasoline blended
with up to 85% ethanol. Individual coupons were exposed to test fuels for four
weeks to achieve saturation. The change in volume and hardness, when wetted
and after drying, were measured and compared with the original condition.

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 was an omnibus energy policy law designed to move the United States toward greater energy security and independence.1 A key provision of EISA modified the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) which requires the nation to increase the volume of renewable fuel blended into transportation fuels from 7.5 billion gallons by 2012 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel, and increasing the ethanol content in gasoline to 15% offers a means of getting significantly closer to the 36 billion gallon goal.

Author(s):
Michael Kass
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Spark-ignition (SI) engines with direct-injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond
that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle number emissions, such that SI
exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. In this study, ethanol blends and engine operating strategy are
evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing particle emissions in DI engines. The investigated fuels include a baseline emissions

Author(s):
James Szybist
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the
compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane
number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was
conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio
of ethanol - gasoline blends to identify the potential for
improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a
flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow
operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85.
Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently

Author(s):
James Szybist
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.