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Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form
and in midlevel alcohol−gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol−gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol−gasoline (E30).
A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air,
and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions
with λ = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased
stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the
stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross)
at λ = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types.
However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at
λ = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study
suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative
midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon
(MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG,
engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol−gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset
the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol−gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Derek Splitter
Contact Person
Tim Theiss
Contact Organization
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Contact Email
Bioenergy Category
Publication Year