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Feedstock Production

Contact information about the submitter of this metadata record:
Author list: Maggie Davis, Matt Langholtz, Laurence Eaton, Chad Hellwinkel
Who should be contacted with questions relating to the data? (Principal investigator or primary developer of data product): Maggie Davis, davismr@ornl.gov

What format is your data presented in? .csv .xls
Date data created 1/26-29/2016
Please include a description of the data set (abstract):
As part of the Billion Ton resource assessment projections created in 2016 (see https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/12/f34/2016_billion_ton_re…), this dataset was produced and titled a "base-case" scenario. This broader dataset provided an updated assessment of the potential economic availability of biomass resources from agricultural lands reported at the farmgate under conservative assumptions. Crop residues quantified in this dataset include corn stover, cereal (wheat, oats, and barley) straws, and sorghum stubble. We have isolated corn stover in this dataset.

What is the purpose of the data set? Why were the data collected?*
Per request for use in subsequent research, we have isolated corn stover in 2019 from the broader base-case projections and have provided tillage classification details from this projection. Tillage classification assumptions in this scenario allow a moderate deviation from a baseline situation (using historic CTIC data on tillage type used in counties for each crop). This dataset allowed moderate flexibility of farmers to put land into another tillage type (no till, conservation till, and reduced till) where a higher net present value was calculated.

Were data created or processed with a model or other analytical tool? Yes
Version POLYSYS v10_1-22-16b
Assumptions: Cumulative (energy crops and residues). Base-case (1% yield growth scenario), Tillage Flex = 1, across offered prices of $40-$60 in $5 increments from 2015 to 2040.

Should other organizations/individuals get credit for support, funding, or data collection and analysis? Yes, the USDOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

Phone
Publication Year
Organization
Lab
Email
davismr@ornl.gov
DOI
10.11578/1632327
Contact Person
Maggie R. Davis
Contact Organization
ORNL
Bioenergy Category
Author
Maggie Davis , Matt Langholtz , Laurence Eaton , Chad Hellwinkel
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The economic potential for Eucalyptus spp. production for jet fuel additives in the United States: A 20 year projection suite of scenarios ranging from $110 Mg-1 to $220 Mg-1 utilizing the POLYSYS model.

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
The economic potential for Eucalyptus spp. production for jet fuel additives in the United States
Organization
Lab
Email
davismr@ornl.gov
Contact Person
Maggie R. Davis
Contact Organization
ORNL
Author
Maggie R. Davis

Logging and mill residues are currently the largest sources of woody biomass for bioenergy in the US, but short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are expected to become a larger contributor to biomass production, primarily on lands marginal for food production. However, there are very few studies on the environmental effects of SRWCs, and most have been conducted at stand rather than at watershed scales. In this manuscript, we review the potential environmental effects of SRWCs relative to current forestry or agricultural practices and best management practices (BMPs) in the southeast US and identify priorities and constraints for monitoring and modeling these effects. Plot-scale field studies and a watershed-scale modeling study found improved water quality with SRWCs compared to agricultural crops. Further, a recent watershed-scale experiment suggests that conventional forestry BMPs are sufficient to protect water quality from SRWC silvicultural activities, but the duration of these studies is short with respect to travel times of groundwater transporting nitrate to streams. While the effects of SRWC production on carbon (C) and water budgets depend on both soil properties and previous land management, woody crops will typically sequester more C when compared with agricultural crops. The overall C offset by SRWCs will depend on a variety of management practices, the number of rotations, and climate. Effects of SRWCs on biodiversity, especially aquatic organisms, are not well studied, but a meta-analysis found that bird and mammal biodiversity is lower in SRWC stands than unmanaged forests. Long-term (i.e., over multiple rotations) water quality, water use, C dynamics, and soil quality studies are needed, as are larger-scale (i.e., landscape scale) biodiversity studies, to evaluate the potential effects of SRWC production. Such research should couple field measurement and modeling approaches due to the temporal (i.e., multiple rotations) and spatial (i.e., heterogeneous landscape) scaling issues involved with SRWC production.

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
Short-rotation woody biomass sustainability
Organization
Lab
Email
griffithsna@ornl.gov
DOI
10.1111/gcbb.12536
Contact Person
Natalie Griffiths
Contact Organization
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Bioenergy Category
Author
Natalie A. Griffiths , Benjamin M. Rau , Kellie B. Vache , Gregory Starr , Menberu M. Bitew , Doug P. Aubrey , James A. Martin , Elizabeth Benton , C. Rhett Jackson
WBS Project Number
4.2.2.41
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

The objective of this research project was to assess whether standard forestry best management practices (BMPs) are sufficient to protect stream water quality from intensive silviculture associated with short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) production for bioenergy. Forestry BMPs are designed to prevent the movement of deleterious quantities of nutrients, herbicides, sediments, and thermal energy (sunlight hitting stream channels) from clear-cuts and plantations to surface waters. Until now, there have been no watershed-scale studies examining the effectiveness of traditional forestry BMPs as applied to SRWC production for bioenergy. The demand for woody bioenergy feedstocks is expected to increase, especially in the southeastern United States where the climate, topography, and land ownership are favorable for wood production. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the environmental effects of SRWC production for bioenergy and the efficacy of BMPs.

This study used a watershed-scale experiment in a before-after, control-impact design to examine the environmental effects of short-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) production for bioenergy and evaluate the efficacy of BMPs for protecting surface water quality. Environmental measurements included water and soil quality (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended solid, pesticide concentrations in water, nitrate leaching, nitrogen mineralization, denitrification, ecosystem nitrogen budget, conservative tracer modeling), hydrology (i.e., overland flow and concentrated flow tracks, interflow [shallow lateral subsurface flow], groundwater dynamics), and productivity and stand-level ecophysiology (i.e., tree growth, carbon, water, and energy fluxes). Most of these environmental metrics were measured before (for ~2 years) and after (for ~6 years) harvest, planting, and managing short-rotation loblolly pine for bioenergy on more than 50% of the land area in two treatment watersheds and also in one mature timber reference watershed. The three study watersheds are located in the Upper Fourmile Creek watershed at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. All silviculture practices in the two treatment watersheds followed South Carolina Forestry BMPs (e.g., minimized soil compaction and bare ground exposure; inhibited hydraulic connections between bare ground and surface waters; provided forested buffers around streams).

The silvicultural plan used in the watershed-scale experiment was designed to achieve high yields of loblolly pine over a short rotation (10–12 green tons/acre/year at 10–12 years), and we intentionally pushed the system in terms of high rates of fertilizer applied. Tree growth and net ecosystem exchange (carbon flux) data demonstrated that the objective of accelerating growth was achieved. In the fourth growing season, aboveground biomass of trees averaged 12,000 kg/ha and carbon sequestration was 466 g C/m2/y. The carbon sequestration rate of the loblolly pine was 1–8 years ahead of conventional southern pine stands grown for pulp production. However, our plot-scale study that manipulated levels of fertilizer and herbicide applications found that the most efficient production system based on the ecosystem N budget was a silvicultural treatment of herbicide without fertilizer; tree growth was 90% of that achieved with operational-scale fertilizer additions and nitrate leaching was lower than in the fertilized treatments. At the operational (watershed) scale, only 30–60% of the nitrogen applied in fertilizers was sequestered in pine after the fourth growing season. Overall, some components of the silvicultural treatments were efficient (i.e., early control of competing plants) and some aspects were not (i.e., early fertilization). These results suggest that nitrogen fertilizers were applied in excess in the first three years and highlight the importance of evaluating water quality responses and efficacy of BMPs under these intensive silvicultural applications.

Despite the high fertilizer applications in the watershed-scale experiment, there were minimal effects of SRWC production on stream water quality, suggesting that forestry BMPs appear to be effective at protecting surface waters. However, nitrate concentrations were elevated in shallow subsurface flow (interflow) and in concentrated flow tracks. Nitrate concentrations also increased in groundwater following harvest and the first fertilizer application. The highest nitrate concentrations measured in groundwater were <2 mg N/L, which is below the US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory limit of 10 mg N/L. These low-gradient watersheds are dominated by groundwater flow paths, and there are several lines of evidence suggesting that some of the elevated nitrate in groundwater should have reached the streams during the 6-year-long posttreatment monitoring period. Groundwater modeling suggests that although transport times to the stream might be on the order of a decade, transport from near-stream portions of the plantations are shorter (1–3 years). Conservative (i.e., non-reactive) tracer modeling also suggests that nitrate concentrations would be elevated in streams following the silvicultural treatments if nitrate travelled conservatively (i.e., nitrate is not taken up or transformed along the groundwater flow path). Estimates of denitrification suggest that this microbial process is important in removing nitrate in groundwater both in the sandy upland areas and in the organic-rich riparian zones (streamside management zones) that are characteristic of this region. Overall, the magnitude of these processes suggests that BMPs in these low-gradient, Coastal Plain watersheds are sufficiently robust to mitigate a relatively low nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. Phosphorus-based fertilizers were also applied as part of the watershed-scale study, but there were no changes in soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations in stream or groundwater, likely because phosphorus is much less mobile than nitrate and the subsoils contain clays that bind phosphorus.

Aside from fertilizer fate, other important water quality parameters are the fate of applied pesticides and the transport of sediments and associated nutrients to streams. We found little evidence of pesticide movement as none of the stream water samples collected posttreatment had detectable levels of pesticides. The pesticides applied in this study are commonly used in southeastern US silvicultural operations and have low mobility and are moderately persistent. We also found very little evidence of sediment transport to streams via overland flow. Concentrated flow track surveys found that the most likely path of solutes by overland flow was from variable source areas that expanded into the plantations during periods with elevated water tables. The greatest sediment input was from an interior ditch of a paved road and was unrelated to silvicultural management of the site. There were no effects of SRWC production on total nitrogen, phosphorus, or suspended solid concentrations in stream water. Therefore, forestry BMPs were effective with respect to pesticide applications, and overland flow and associated sediment transport.

Overall, the lack of effect of short-rotation loblolly pine production for bioenergy on stream water quality suggests that current forestry BMPs are effective at protecting surface waters in the Coastal Plain landscape even with high levels of fertilization and herbicide application associated with SRWC production. These results should be applicable throughout the southeastern Coastal Plain, in watersheds that are characterized by low-gradient uplands with sandy soils and organic-rich riparian zones. Hydrologic processes in the Piedmont differ sufficiently from those in the Coastal Plain that caution should be used when extrapolating these findings to the Piedmont.

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
Short-rotation woody biomass sustainability
Organization
Lab
Email
griffithsna@ornl.gov
Contact Person
Natalie Griffiths
Contact Organization
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Bioenergy Category
Author
Natalie A. Griffiths , C. Rhett Jackson , John I. Blake , Johnson Jeffers , Benjamin M. Rau , Gregory Starr , Kellie Vache
WBS Project Number
4.2.2.41
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Link to the website with documentation and download instructions for the PNNL Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a community model or long-term, global energy, agriculture, land use, and emissions. BioEnergy production, transformation, and use is an integral part of GCAM modeling and scenarios.

http://jgcri.github.io/gcam-doc/

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
GCAM Bioenergy and Land Use Modeling
Lab
Email
marshall.wise@pnnl.gov
Contact Person
Marshall Wise
Contact Organization
PNNL
Author
Marshall Wise
WBS Project Number
4.1.2.50 NL0022708
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

This is a joint report between three national labs, ORNL, INL, and ANL, that describes outcomes from a workshop. The Bioenergy Solutions to Gulf Hypoxia Workshop gathered stakeholders from industry, academia, national laboratories, and U.S. federal agencies to discuss how biomass feedstocks could help decrease nutrient loadings to the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), a root cause of the large hypoxic zone that forms each summer. More broadly, workshop participants discussed the current state of environmental markets in the United States and the state of the science on nutrient management and monetization of the ecosystem services and environmental and social benefits derived from growing energy crops.

A diverse group of participants presented informative perspectives during five sessions: (1) Framing the Problem, (2) Technologies and Practices to Improve Nutrient Management, (3) Monetizing Ecosystem Services, (4) Strategies to Advance Progress, and (5) Research Gaps and Strategies. Multiple breakout discussions designed to elicit stakeholder inputs were interspersed within the presentations.

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
Visualizing Ecosystem Services Portfolios of Agricultural and Forested Biomass Production
Lab
Email
jagerhi@ornl.gov
Contact Person
Henriette Jager
Contact Organization
ORNL, ANL, INL
Bioenergy Category
Author
Henriette Jager , Christina Negri , Leslie Ovard , Shyam Nair
WBS Project Number
4.2.1.40
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Join the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office on Dec. 6, 2018, at 1 p.m. CST for a webinar on “Biomass Production and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin.” In this webinar, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory will jointly present modeling and analyses of potential implications of biomass production on nutrients and sediments in each of the six tributaries of the Mississippi River Basin. Presenters will describe the methodology, system boundary, and data sources and present water quality estimates for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediments under historical land use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Missouri River Basin, Ohio River Basin, Arkansas White and Red River Basin, Tennessee River Basin, and Lower Mississippi River Basin. The webinar will also provide an estimate of potential changes in water quality and quantity under future biomass production scenarios and discuss opportunities for integrating conservation practices with biomass production. The webinar will include a 15 minute Q&A segment.

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
Visualizing Ecosystem Service Portfolios
Organization
Lab
Email
jagerhi@ornl.gov
Contact Person
Henriette I. Jager
Contact Organization
ORNL
Bioenergy Category
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Price Scenarios at $54 and $119 were simulated for Switchgrass, Miscanthus and Willow production from 2017 to 2040. These analyses will be used in a subsequent publication.

Phone
Usage Policy
Any use of this data should cite associated DOI.
Publication Year
Email
davismr@ornl.gov
DOI
10.11578/1468424
Data Source
Internal Simulations using POLYSYS
Contact Person
Maggie Davis
Contact Organization
ORNL
Author
Maggie R. Davis

This dataset was utilized in a report to highlight parameters that affect near-term sustainable supply of corn stover and forest resources at $56 and $74 per dry ton delivered. While the report focus is restricted to 2018, the modeling runs are available from 2016-2022. In the 2016 Billion-ton Report (BT16), two stover cases were presented. In this dataset, we vary technical levels of those assumptions to measure stover supply response and to evaluate the major determinants of stover supply. In each of these cases, the supply is modeled first at the farmgate at prices up to $80 per dry ton for five deterministic scenarios. Building on this dataset, a supplementary dataset of delivered supply was modeled for 800k dry ton per year capacity facilities in two facility siting approaches. Results were summarized across delivered supply curves for twelve scenarios. The resulting supply curves are highly elastic, resulting in a range of potential supplies across scenarios at specified prices. Interactive visualization of these data allows exploration into any specified nth plant supply sensitivity to key variables and spatial distribution of stover resources.

The analysis is economic supply risk and doesn’t account for disruptions from competing demands, namely livestock feed and bedding markets.

Phone
Usage Policy
Any use of this data should cite associated DOI
Publication Year
Project Title
Supply Scenario Analysis
Email
davismr@ornl.gov
Attachment
DOI
10.11578/1467581
Data Source
Internal Simulations using POLYSYS
Contact Person
Maggie Davis
Contact Organization
ORNL
Author
Maggie Davis , Laurence Eaton , Matt Langholtz
WBS Project Number
1.1.1.3.
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.

Synthesis manuscript for an Ecology & Society Special Feature on Telecoupling: A New Frontier for Global Sustainability

Abstract: European demand for renewable energy resources has led to rapidly increasing transatlantic exports of wood pellets from the southeastern United States (SE US) since 2009. Disagreements have arisen over the global greenhouse gas reductions associated with replacing coal with wood, and groups on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have raised concerns that increasing biomass exports might negatively affect SE US forests and the ecosystem services they provide. We use the telecoupling framework to test assertions that the intended benefits of the wood pellet trade for Europe might be offset by negative consequences in the SE US. Through a review of current literature and available data sets, we characterize the observed and potential changes in the environmental, social, and economic components of the sending and receiving regions to assess the overall sustainability of this renewable energy system. We conclude that the observed transatlantic wood pellet trade is an example of a mutually beneficial telecoupled system with the potential to provide environmental and socioeconomic benefits in both the SE US and Europe despite some negative effects on the coal industry. We recommend continued monitoring of this telecoupled system to quantify the environmental, social, and economic interactions and effects in the sending, receiving, and spillover systems over time so that evidence-based policy decisions can be made with regard to the sustainability of this renewable energy pathway.

Citation: Parish, E. S., A. J. Herzberger, C. C. Phifer and V. H. Dale. 2018. Transatlantic wood pellet trade demonstrates telecoupled benefits. Ecology and Society 23 (1):28. [online] URL:https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol23/iss1/art28/

Phone
Publication Year
Project Title
Bioenergy Sustainability: How to Define and Measure it
Email
parishes@ornl.gov
DOI
doi.org/10.5751/ES-09878-230128
Contact Person
Esther S. Parish
Contact Organization
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Bioenergy Category
Author
Esther Parish, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Anna Herzeberger, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University , Colin Phifer, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University , Virginia Dale, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
WBS Project Number
4.2.2.40
Funded from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.
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