Literature + Algae + Billion Ton Report 2005 + Biomass Feedstock Cultivation + Energy Data Books + Land Use Impacts + Models and Applications + Switchgrass + New Feedstock Research
Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the socalled ?carbon debt?) has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt duetolandusechangeandbeginprovidingcumulativegreenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the ?payback period? and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: ?direct?
Life Cycle Inventory Modelling of Land Use Induced by Crop Consumption Part 1: Conceptual Analysis and Methodological Proposal
The actual land use consequences of crop consumption are not very well reflected in existing life cycle inventories. The state of the art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is produced, and consequently the inventories do not necessarily consider the land ultimately affected in the systems being studied. The aims of this study are to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and to propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope.
Ground-based data on crop production in the USA is provided through surveys conducted by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and the Census of Agriculture (AgCensus). Statistics from these surveys are widely used in economic analyses, policy design, and for other purposes. However, missing data in the surveys presents limitations for research that requires comprehensive data for spatial analyses.We created comprehensive county-level databases for nine major crops of the USA for a 16-yr period, by filling the gaps in existing data reported by NASS and AgCensus.
Two of the most widely used land-cover data sets for the United States are the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) at 30-m resolution and the Global Land- Cover Characteristics (GLCC) at 1-km nominal resolution. Both data sets were produced around 1992 and expected to provide similar land-cover information. This study investigated the spatial distribution of NLCD within major GLCC classes at 1-km unit over a total of 11 agricultural-related eco-regions across the continental United States.
For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest.
The GTAP Land Use Data Base and the GTAPE-AEZ Model: Incorporating Agro-Ecologically Zoned Land Use Data and Land-based Greenhouse Gases Emissions into the GTAP Framework
The paper describes the on-going project of the GTAP land use data base. We also present the GTAPE-AEZ model, which illustrates how land use and land-based emissions can be incorporated in the CGE framework for Integrated Assessment (IA) of climate change policies. We follow the FAO fashion of agro-ecological zoning (FAO, 2000; Fischer et al, 2002) to identify lands located in six zones. Lands located in a specific AEZ have similar (or homogenous) soil, landform and climatic characteristics.
Our ability to change ourselves and our surroundings incrcases with each technological advance. Changes today are more ertensive and occur more rapidly than ever before. The significance of these changes incrcases as the world's population grows, the available land base declines, and the resiliency of our environment becomes increasingly taxed. As a result,m any organizationsn eed to monitor changei n land cover and land use. While ertensive rcsearch has been completed on various change detection methods, Iittle work has been done to implement the technologiesi n a commercial environment.
Soil and Water Quality and Other Environmental Implications Associated with Corn Stover Removal and Herbaceous Energy Crop Production in Iowa
The harvest of corn stover or herbaceous crops as feedstocks for bioenergy purposes has been shown to have significant benefits from energy and climate change perspectives. There is a potential, however, to adversely impact water and soil quality, especially in Midwestern states where the biomass feedstock production would predominantly occur.
Methodology for Estimating Removable Quantities of Agricultural Residues for Bioenergy and Bioproduct Use
A methodology was developed to estimate quantities of crop residues that can be removed while maintaining rain or wind erosion at less than or equal to the tolerable soil-loss level. Six corn and wheat rotations in the 10 largest corn-producing states were analyzed. Residue removal rates for each rotation were evaluated for conventional, mulch/reduced, and no-till field operations.
Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer Used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production
Fertilizers used to increase the yield of crops used for food or bio-based products can migrate through the environment and potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Nitrogen fertilizers have a complex biogeochemical cycle. Through their transformations and partitioning among environmental compartments, they can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters at local and regional scales, groundwater degradation, acid rain, and climate change.