Literature + Emissions + Enduse of E10 and E85 + Energy Data Books + Outcomes - Policy and Environment + Environment and Sustainability + GHG and Climate Impacts + Land Use Impacts + Lifecycle Analyses + Policy Analyses + Retail Outlet Location
Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil.
Governments worldwide are promoting the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the climate impact of using fuels. In this article, I discuss the impacts of biofuels on climate change, water use, and land use. I discuss the overall metric by which these impacts have been measured and then present and discuss estimates of the impacts. In spite of the complexities of the environmental and technological systems that affect climate change, land use, and water use, and the difficulties of constructing useful metrics, it is possible to make some qualitative overall assessments.
In the last decade biofuel production has been driven by governmental policies. This article reviews the national strategy plans of the world’s leading producers. Particular attention is dedicated to blending targets, support schemes and feedstock use. Individual country profiles are grouped by continent and include North America (Canada and the US), South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia), Europe (the European Union, France, and Germany), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Australia.
This study quantifies the impact of increasing ethanol production on wholesale/retail gasoline prices employing pooled regional time-series data from January 1995 to March 2008. We find that the growth in ethanol production kept wholesale gasoline prices $0.14/gallon lower than would otherwise have been the case. The negative impact of ethanol on retail gasoline prices is found to vary considerably across regions. The Midwest region has the biggest impact at $0.28/gallon, while the Rocky Mountain region had the smallest impact at $0.07/gallon.
The increase in oil prices has caused a concern on the dependence for fossil fuels. Different alternative fuels are being analyzed to determine whether they are feasible. Many avenues need to be searched for each alternative fuel before deciding whether the benefits outweigh the costs. One such problem that needs to be addressed is whether the transportation sector can handle such a change. A synopsis of the transportation costs are examined in this report for different types of commodities which can be used for alternative fuels.
The United States shares with many other countries the goal of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “to achieve . . . stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”1 The critical role of new technologies in achieving this goal is underscored by the fact that most anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted over the next century will come from equipment and infrastructure that has not yet been
Estimates of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are used extensively in transportation planning for allocating resources, estimating vehicle emissions, computing energy consumption, and assessing traffic impact. The estimates used in these applications usually come from different sources. For an objective comparison of VMT estimates from different methods, the principles and assumptions supporting the methods and the potential sources of error associated with the methods must be clearly understood.
Evaluating the sales patterns of E85 retail outlets can provide important information about consumer behavior regarding E85, locating future E85 fueling infrastructure, and developing future alternative fuel policies and programs. We used multivariate statistical analyses to estimate the significance of factors that influence the volume of E85 fuel sales to the general public in Minnesota from 1997 to 2006, including the gallon price of E85 and gasoline, FFV vehicle ownership, population demographics, and other variables.
We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative "flex" car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices).