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2023 Billion-Ton Report

The U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technology Office's (BETO's) 2023 Billion-Ton Report (BT23) is an assessment of renewable carbon resources potentially available in the United States. BT23 explores these resources in terms of quantity, price, geographical density and distribution, and market maturity. Resource quantities in this report are limited by specified economic and environmental sustainability constraints. Good practices are needed to ensure biomass production has positive environmental outcomes.

BT23 supports BETO's mission, particularly the 2023 Multi-Year Program Plan. To access 2023 Billion-Ton Report PDFs, appendices, and high-level messages, navigate to the 2023 Billion-Ton Report landing page at… on the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office website.

To access information about the quality assumptions used in this report, please see the Biomass Feedstock Library at

Please cite the 2023 Billion-Ton Report as: U.S. Department of Energy. 2024. 2023 Billion‐Ton Report: An Assessment of U.S. Renewable Carbon Resources. M. H. Langholtz (Lead). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ORNL/SPR-2024/3103. doi: 10.23720/BT2023/2316165.

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Matthew H Langholtz
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